The qualified electronic signature (QES) presupposes that the identity of the signatory is established in personal contact.
The Federal Electronic Signature Act (ZertES) defines that a certification provider can only issue certificates (e.g. QES) to persons who have previously been uniquely identified. ZertES defines that identity verification must take place in personal contact. Exceptions are financial intermediaries who may also do identity verification with video identification in accordance with the Regulation on Electronic Signature (VZertES).